13.13 The XPol+SAPT (XSAPT) Method

13.13.2 AO-XSAPT(KS)+aiD

SAPT(KS) calculations and their many-body extension, XSAPT(KS), uses a Kohn-Sham DFT description of the monomers in order to introduce intramolecular electron correlation in a low-cost way, then described the intermolecular interactions using second-order SAPT. As mentioned in The resulting interaction energies, however, are not of benchmark quality even when tuned LRC functionals are employed,526 because although the use of DFT for the monomers often improves the description of hydrogen bonding (relative to Hartree-Fock-based SAPT0 calculations), the description of dispersion often deteriorates.369 In any case, SAPT0 dispersion is not of benchmark quality anyway, as it suffers from the usual MP2 overestimation of dispersion. At the same time the dispersion and exchange-dispersion terms are the most expensive parts of a SAPT0 or SAPT(KS) calculation, with a formal scaling of 𝒪(N4) and 𝒪(N5), respectively, with respect to system size. Other terms in SAPT0 scale no worse than 𝒪(N3) and can be computed efficiently for large monomers using an atomic orbital (AO)-based implementation of the non-dispersion terms in SAPT.529

In view of this, both the efficiency and the accuracy of XSAPT(KS) calculations is improved if second-order dispersion, i.e., Edisp(2)+Eexch-disp(2) in Eqs (13.44) and (13.48), is replaced by an ad hoc atom–atom dispersion potential of the -C6/R6-C8/R8- variety. This is reminiscent of dispersion-corrected DFT or DFT-D, as described in Section 5.7.2. Unlike the situation in DFT, however, the dispersion energy is well-defined and separable within the SAPT formalism, so it can be replaced by atom–atom potentials without any fear of double counting of correlation effects, as there inevitably is in DFT-D. Moreover, in the present case the dispersion potentials can be fit directly to ab initio dispersion energies from high-level SAPT calculations [SAPT(DFT) and SAPT2+(3)], since the dispersion contribution is separable. As such, while the dispersion potentials that are described here are classical in form and do contain fitting parameters, they can nevertheless reasonably be described as ab initio dispersion potentials. We therefore describe this method as “+aiD”,529 to distinguish it from the “+D” dispersion corrections of DFT-D, although we simply called it “+D” in earlier work.524, 525, 527 The composite method is called XSAPT(KS)+aiD; see Ref. 525 for an overview and Ref. 529 for an efficient implementation in the AO basis. The latter version exhibits 𝒪(N3) scaling without significant memory bottlenecks, and is applicable to supramolecular complexes whose monomers contain 100 atoms.529

To request an XSAPT(KS)+aiD calculation, set JOBTYPE = XSAPT in the $rem section to perform XSAPT, with an appropriate choice of SCF method (Hartree-Fock or DFT). The +aiD part of the algorithm is invoked by two keywords in the $sapt input section: first, set Algorithm to AO to select the 𝒪(N3) AO-based version of XSAPT; and second, set EmpiricalDisp equal to 1, 2, or 3. The latter choices correspond, respectively, to the “first generation" (+aiD1) potential,524 the second-generation (+aiD2) potential,525 or the third-generation (+aiD3) dispersion potential.527 All three versions exhibit similar performance for total interaction energies,527 but only the +aiD2 and +aiD3 potentials were fit directly to ab initio dispersion data (rather than being fit to reproduce interaction energies themselves), and they do a much better job of reproducing individual energy components. (It was later discovered that the performance of +aiD1 benefits from some error cancellation amongst energy components,525, 527 and as such its use is not recommended.) The difference between +aiD2 and +aiD3 is a larger training set for the latter, which was designed to afford better coverage of π-stacked systems. The +aiD3 correction (EmpiricalDisp 3) is the recommended one.

As with XPol, the XSAPT and XSAPT(KS)+aiD methods do not function with a solvation model or with external changes. Only single-point energies are available, and frozen orbitals orbitals are not allowed. Both restricted and unrestricted versions are available. Researchers who use XSAPT(KS)+aiD are asked to cite Ref. 524 for +aiD1, Ref. 525 for +aiD2, or Ref. 527 for +aiD3, along with Ref. 529 for the AO-based version of XSAPT.

EmpiricalDisp
       Requests a +aiD dispersion potential.
INPUT SECTION: $sapt
TYPE:
       INTEGER
DEFAULT:
       3
OPTIONS:
       n Use version n=1, 2, or 3.
RECOMMENDATION:
       Use +aiD3. The second- and third-generation versions were parameterized using ab initio dispersion data and afford accurate energy components, in addition to accurate total interaction energies. The third-generation version was parameterized using an expanded data set designed to reduce some large errors observed for π-stacked complexes using +aiD2.

Example 13.29  AO-XSAPT(KS)+D3 calculation of water-water interaction.

$molecule
0 1
--
   0 1
   O  -1.551007  -0.114520   0.000000
   H  -1.934259   0.762503   0.000000
   H  -0.599677   0.040712   0.000000
--
   0 1
   O   1.350625   0.111469   0.000000
   H   1.680398  -0.373741  -0.758561
   H   1.680398  -0.373741   0.758561
$end

$rem
   JOBTYPE            xsapt
   EXCHANGE           gen
   BASIS              aug-cc-pVTZ
   MEM_TOTAL          46000
   MEM_STATIC         4000
   AO2MO_DISK         35000
   CHELPG_DX          5
   CHELPG_HEAD        30
   CHELPG_H           110
   CHELPG_HA          590
$end

$xpol
   embed   charges
   charges CHELPG
   DFT-LRC
   print   3
$end

$sapt
   algorithm     ao  ! for use with +aiD dispersion
   order         2   ! 2nd-order SAPT
   basis         projected
   EmpiricalDisp 3
   print         3
$end

$xc_functional
   x   wPBE  1.0
   c   PBE   1.0
$end

$lrc_omega
   502
   502
$end